Post Mixing Optimization and Solutions


This is a continuation of the Process Intensifier - Optimization with CFD: Part 1 paper.

Description of the equipment tested

An Internet search yielded four different commercially available Process Intensifiers. There may be some slight differences between the designs studied here and what is actually commercially available. We did not consult the vendors directly, but based the designs on information available at their respective Internet sites or brochures (see References).

We limited our comparison to studying Process Intensifiers in horizontal Schedule 40 10-inch (254 mm) pipes (T = 10 inches) with a flow of Q = 1100 GPM (250 m3/hr) and running at motor speed (N = 1750 RPM). This flow rate is right in the middle of the applicable flow range for Schedule 40 10" pipes (v = 1.37 m/s)(Fisher Control Valve Handbook 1977). Some tests were done at Q = 650 GPM (148 m3/hr), which represents the average flow rate when using 8-inch (43 mm) pipe (v = 1.26 m/s). Process Intensifiers with 10-inch pipes could easily be flanged to 8-inch pipe in order to decrease the linear velocity inside the Process Intensifier (v = 0.81 m/s for 650 GPM).

Design LTR HGR LTA HGA Case R Case A
Impellers Dual Radial RP44-bladed paddles Dual Radial RP44-bladed paddles Dual Axial

3-bladed PBT 30 deg
Dual Axial

3-bladed PBT 30 deg
Single Radial RP44-bladed paddles Single Axial 3-bladed PBT30 deg
D 5” (127 mm) 5” (127 mm) 3.5” (88.9 mm) 5” (127 mm) 5” (127 mm) 5” (127 mm)
h/D or w/D 0.20 0.30 0.25 0.25 0.20 0.25
OB 3” (76 mm) 3” (76 mm) 2.5” (63.5 mm) 3” (76 mm) 4.2” (107 mm) 4.2” (107 mm)
S 4” (102 mm) 4” (102 mm) 5” (127 mm) 4” (102 mm) - -
Other Features Long Z-plate

L = 19.7”
(500 mm),

DO = 5 1/8”
(130 mm)
Short Z-plate

L = 7.9”
(200 mm),

DO = 5 1/8”
(130 mm)

and flow straightener.
Both impellers are down pumping. Crucifix baffle (Horseshoe and straight baffle crossing on bottom of pipe. Upper impel­ler is down pump­ing, lower impeller is up pump­ing. Seg­mented horse­shoe baffle, and a criss-cross flow straightener. T = 12.5”
(317.5 mm)

4 full height standard baffles


T = 12.5”
(317.5 mm)

4 full height standard baffles


Fluids Water Water Water Water
Xanthan Gum
Water Water
CFD Model
Table 0: Overview description of equipment tested. Dimensions are in inches (mm). D: impeller diameter, h: blade height, w: blade width, OB: off-bottom distance, S: impeller spacing, L: length of Z-plate, DO: Orifice diameter, Z: liquid level, T: tank or pipe diameter. The general flow pattern in all figures is from right to left. CFD Model: The tan objects are stationary surfaces. The red object is the top of the T-pipe section. The shaft is blue and the impellers are green. The rotating reference frame tightly surrounds each impeller in­divid­ually. The pipe and T are not shown.

Lightnin denotes their Process Intensifiers as Line Blenders, whereas Hayward Gordon calls them In-Line Mixers. Each vendor has dual radial and dual axial impeller designed units. They differ basically that the radial impeller design includes a divider in a "Z" shape with a central orifice that directs the flow from a generally horizontal flow pattern to a vertical flow pattern, passing by each radial flow impeller. The axial impeller designs do not have this Z-plate in this study. In all studies water and inert tracers were used. An application with high viscosity non-Newtonian Xanthan Gum demonstrates the usefulness of using Process Intensifiers for such processes.

Continue with Experimental Design subtopics...

Dual Radial Process Intensifiers |   Axial Impeller Process Intensifiers  |   CFD Solid Shape Models  |   Standard Geometries

or skip the Experimental Section and...

Continue with Results or Go back to the Title Page

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